The medical specialty of urology focuses on understanding the workings of and conditions affecting the urinary system. Urologists are medical professionals with a focus on urology. They can identify the diseases that affect both male and female urinary tract systems.


The term Urology specifically deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract (kidneys, ureter, bladder, and urethra). It also deals with the male reproductive organs (Penis, Testes, Prostate, Scrotum). Urologic health is crucial since illnesses in these body components can affect everybody.


An urologist commonly deals with the following conditions:

  • Pediatric Urology (Children’s Urology)
  • Urologic Oncology (Urologic cancer)
  • Renal (Kidney) Transplant
  • Male Infertility
  • Calculi (Urinary Tract stones)
  • Female Urology
  • Neurourology (nervous system control of genitourinary organs) 


  • Frequent urinary tract infections (UTI)
  • Inability to control urination (urinary incontinence)
  • Blood in the urine (hematuria)
  • Conditions of male reproductive system benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH, or enlarged prostate) 
  • Interstitial cystitis (painful bladder)
  • Severe pain arising due to obstruction by calculi



  • Trouble in urination/ Urine Infection (लघवी करताना त्रास होणे / मुत्रमार्गाचा संसर्ग)
  • Change in color of urine (लघवीचा रंग बदलणे)
  • Trouble getting or keeping an erection (लिंगा मध्ये ताठरतेचा अभाव असणे)
  • Infertility (वंध्यत्व)
  • Pelvic pain (ओटीपोटात वेदना)
  • Urinating while laughing, sneezing, or exercising (मूत्रमार्गात असंयम)

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The healthcare providers who diagnose and treat diseases of the urinary tract in both men and women are called Urologists.

Kidneys: Organs that filter out the waste out of the body to produce urine

Ureter: The tubes through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder

Urethra: The tube through which urine travels from the bladder out of the body

Bladder: Hollow sac where the urine is stored

Adrenal glands: Located on top of the kidneys that release hormones 

Penis: The organ that releases urine and carries sperm out of the body

Prostate: The gland underneath the bladder that adds fluid to sperm to produce semen

Testicles: The two oval organs inside the scrotum that produces testosterone and sperms

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General Question About Urology Surgery

Urologic conditions include urinary tract infection, kidney stones, bladder control problems, and prostate problems. 

Urologists may perform a variety of urology procedures to treat and diagnose urologic conditions: 

  • Vasectomy
  • Cystoscopy
  • Prostate procedures
  • Stone removal

The commonest urologic surgical procedures are:

  • Nephrectomy: A surgical removal of a kidney 
  • Pyeloplasty: The surgical reconstruction of the renal pelvis to drain and decompress the kidney 
  • Ureteral reimplants: The original ureter is surgically re-positioned or reimplanted in the bladder wall 

The term "Urodynamics" describes the urinary tract's processes. Testing may be carried out to ascertain how the urethra, bladder, and voiding of urine are all operating in harmony.

Pain while urinating is the main symptom of urinary tract infection or prostate along with obstructions in the urethra, kidney, and bladder. 

Blood in the urine may have a modest cause or be a sign of a major underlying medical issue. An extensive evaluation will be carried out by a urologist to ascertain the source. A urinary tract infection, kidney or bladder stones, malignancy, or an injury could all be the cause of the blood.

Urination frequency varied from person to person, but, a healthy person urinates 4 to 8 times a day.

When the supporting tissues become weak, structures like the bladder or rectum may bulge or protrude into the vaginal wall, leading to vaginal or pelvic prolapse.

Kidney stones may cause severe pain in the back, side, abdomen, groin, or genitals that increases in waves then there could be possible chances of having a kidney stone. Other symptoms may include nausea and vomiting, presence of blood in urine, frequent urination, and painful urination.

  • Increase water intake
  • Less oxalate-rich food
  • Stop calcium supplements
  • Take a low salt diet and animal protein



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